UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI EXTENSION
 

Missouri Corn Facts

Five-year average annual value of Missouri corn production between 2012 and 2016a: $1,911,214,800

Top Corn Production Regionsa
20162016
RankUS StateRankMO Counties
1Iowa1Saline
2Illinois2Atchison
3Nebraska3Nodaway
4Minnesota4Lafayette
5Indiana5Holt
6South Dakota6Audrain
7Kansas7Carroll
8Wisconsin8Stoddard
9Missouri9New Madrid
10Ohio10Marion

One Bushel of Corn Produces:

  • 2.8 gallons of ethanol fuel AND 17 pounds of distillers dried grains (livestock feed)
  • 56 pounds of grain supplying 4.75 pounds of protein and 87,000 kilocalories of energyb
  • 32 pounds of starch, OR 33 pounds of sweetener, OR 1.6 pounds of corn oil
Map of Missouri Corn Production by County (2014)

Click to see a larger image

MissouriHarvested AcresaYieldaAverage Annual Pricea
Record High8,020,000 acres in 1917186 bushels per acre in 2014$7.34/bushel in 2012
Record Low1,400,000 acres in 19839.3 bushels per acre in 1934$1.00/bushel in 1960
5-Year Average4,115,000 acres175.5 bushels per acre$4.50/bushel

Corn Production in Missouri

While corn acres decreased from the early 1900's to the 1980's, yields per acre increased such that total production has been increasing since the 1930's. Annual corn sales have exceeded one billion dollars a year for years 2006 to 2010.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

Genetically Engineered Corn

Missouri has adopted the use of genetically engineered corn. Herbicide-tolerant-only and insect-resistant-only varieties are decreasing as stacked gene varieties that have both herbicide-tolerance and insect-resistance are being adopted.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

Corn Production Efficiency

Missouri corn yields have increased over 1 bushel per year. At the same time the pounds of fertilizer and pesticide used to produce that corn has decreased. This double efficiency of increasing yields and decreasing input simultaneously sustains profits and environmental quality.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

2018 Corn Crop Budgetc

 Dryland Corn
(after beans)
Irrigated Corn
Yield/ac. 140 bu.190 bu.
Market Price/Bu. $3.50 $3.50
 
Estimated Income/Acre  
Grain Sales (yield x price/bushel) $490.00$665.00
Estimated Total Income/Acre $490.00$665.00
 
Estimated Operating Costs/Acre  
Seed $97.50 $104.00
Fertilizer and soil amendments 79.61 103.75
Crop protection chemicals 40.00 40.00
Crop supplies, storage, marketing 1.00 1.00
Crop consulting and insurance 21.00 24.00
Custom hire and rental 6.00 6.00
Energy: machine fuel, drying, irrigation 31.95 69.35
Machinery repairs and maintenance 13.48 47.54
Value of operator and hired labor 13.54 20.53
Operating interest @ 6% x ½ year 8.36 11.44
Total Operating Costs/Acre $312.54 $427.61
 
Estimated Ownership Costs/Acre  
Farm business overhead 3.40 4.80
Machinery overhead 24.45 43.87
Machinery depreciation 27.69 49.23
Real estate charge 132.00 165.00
Total Ownership Costs/Acre $187.54 $262.90
 
Estimated Total Costs/Acre $500.09 $690.51
 
Income over Operating Costs/Acre$177.46$237.39
Income over Total Costs/Acre -$10.09-$25.51
 
Operating Costs/bushel $2.23$2.25
Ownership costs/bushel $1.34$1.38
Total costs/bushel $3.57$3.63

Corn Export Datad

The value of total agricultural exports for Missouri in 2016 was $3,629,700,000. The value of corn exports from Missouri in 2016 was $347,600,000.

Top Corn Exporting States, 2016
RankMillion $State
11,746.6Iowa
21,558.2Illinois
31,162.6Nebraska
4958.8Minnesota
5677.8Indiana
6502.6South Dakota
7423.6Kansas
8374.3Ohio
9347.6Missouri
10282.4Wisconsin

 

US Grades & Grade Requirements for Corne

GradeMinimum test weightMaximum limits of:
Damaged kernelsBroken corn and foreign material
Heat damaged kernelsTotal
U.S. No. 156.00.1%3.0%2.0%
U.S. No. 254.00.2%5.0%3.0%
U.S. No. 352.00.5%7.0%4.0%

Major Uses of Corn in Missouri

Missouri is a corn exporter. We produce more corn than we use. Major users of corn in the state are feed mills that manufacture feed for cattle, dairy, swine and poultry and ethanol manufacturers. Ethanol plants have become an important user of corn in Missouri. Missouri has 4 class 1 freight railroads and 2 regional railroads that serve the state (see this map). In addition there are 11 ports on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers that assist in moving grain to export markets (see here). Feed millsf (blue dots) and ethanol plantsg (orange dots) in Missouri are shown in the map below.

Map of Missouri Feed Mills and Ethanol Plants

Click to see a larger image

Corn Checkoff Program

Corn producers pay 1 cent per bushel of corn. This money is used to develop and expand the corn market, facilitate communication with corn growers and customers and research new corn utilization opportunitiesh.

Missouri County Yields (2007-2016)a

CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Adair1241802014442012
Andrew1311722014712012
Atchison15719220141062012
Audrain1261862014332012
Barry1131492009372011
Barton1261792014492011
Bates13014720091192010
Benton1171672016432012
Bollinger1301542013105105
Boone1211882014412012
Buchanan14215920161122012
Butler14917420141262010
Caldwell1231852014412012
Callaway1301842014422012
Cape Girardeau1371592015802012
Carroll1331612016842012
Cass1211792014492012
Cedar1071272010772013
Chariton1291882014572012
Christian1121392014602011
Clark1161662009692012
Clay1431832014872012
Clinton1371842014582012
Cole1361782014732012
Cooper1291742016572012
Dade1131672014372011
Daviess13517720141052010
De Kalb1111352009562012
Dunklin16619220131502010
Franklin1311732014492012
Gasconade1171602014642012
Gentry1201382009942010
Greene1261502013672012
Grundy1121372009612012
Harrison1051342007442012
Henry991622017352012
Hickory15016720141192013
Holt16220120141292012
Howard1291532008812012
Howell1091712014652010
Jackson1331632009752012
Jasper1041362009342011
Jefferson1181442009452012
Johnson1271862014572012
Knox1341952014412012
Laclede1241592008812012
Lafayette1552102014802012
Lawrence1181452009702012
CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Lewis1201832014412012
Lincoln1191562016452012
Linn1191602016512012
Livingston1221682016502012
Macon1181612009452012
Maries1211662014452012
Marion1401882016672012
Mercer11813120071022010
Miller1191752014542012
Mississippi16919620141312012
Moniteau1101322009442012
Monroe1231872014222012
Montgomery1031352008312012
Morgan1141552016412012
New Madrid17119820141572010
Newton13814520161312008
Nodaway1361942014882012
Osage1431842016782012
Pemiscot16117920141402010
Perry1371702014612012
Pettis1231882014422012
Pike1311932014432012
Platte1381602016842012
Polk1151682014442012
Putnam1131492009662012
Ralls1251742016412012
Randolph1301772016402012
Ray1391912014882012
Ripley1201512013672010
Saline1562072014842012
Schuyler1081242007752010
Scotland1221802014612012
Scott16417720151392012
Shelby1231842014362012
St Charles1461792014692012
St Clair961572014362011
St Francois1261652014682012
St Louis1501842014752012
Ste Genevieve1421922014692012
Stoddard16019020141302012
Sullivan1081632014462012
Texas12213420131102009
Vernon1171482016682012
Warren1311882014502012
Wayne971212009542012
Webster1211572016812011
Worth1231902014602012
* Maximum and minimum years may not be accurate due to USDA county grouping process.

Sources

  1. USDA NASS (used total production in bushels to determine rank)
  2. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Ninth Revised Edition. 1988.
  3. University of Missouri Crop Budgets
  4. USDA Economic Research Service
  5. USDA GIPSA
  6. Missouri Department of Agriculture
  7. Renewable Fuels Association
  8. Missouri Corn