UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI EXTENSION
 

Missouri Corn Facts

Five-year average annual value of Missouri corn production between 2006 and 2010a: $1,639,689,800

Top Corn Production Regions, 2012a
RankUSRankMO Counties
1Iowa1Atchison
2Minnesota2New Madrid
3Nebraska3Stoddard
4Illinois4Holt
5Indiana5Saline
6S Dakota6Nodaway
7Ohio7Scott
8N Dakota8Mississippi
9Wisconsin9Carroll
12Missouri10Lafayette

One Bushel of Corn Produces:

  • 2.8 gallons of ethanol fuel AND 17 pounds of distillers dried grains (livestock feed)
  • 56 pounds of grain supplying 4.75 pounds of protein and 87,000 kilocalories of energyb
  • 32 pounds of starch, OR 33 pounds of sweetener, OR 1.6 pounds of corn oil
Map of Missouri Corn Production by County (2010)

Click to see a larger image

MissouriHarvested AcresaYieldaAverage Annual Pricea
Record High8,020,000 acres in 1917162 bushels per acre in 2004$7.50/bushel in 2012
Record Low1,400,000 acres in 19839.3 bushels per acre in 1934$1.00/bushel in 1960
5-Year Average2,988,000 acres121.8 bushels per acre$5.41/bushel

Corn Production in Missouri

While corn acres decreased from the early 1900's to the 1980's, yields per acre increased such that total production has been increasing since the 1930's. Annual corn sales have exceeded one billion dollars a year for years 2006 to 2010.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

Genetically Engineered Corn

Missouri has adopted the use of genetically engineered corn. Herbicide-tolerant-only and insect-resistant-only varieties are decreasing as stacked gene varieties that have both herbicide-tolerance and insect-resistance are being adopted.

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Corn Production Efficiency

Missouri corn yields have increased over 1 bushel per year. At the same time the pounds of fertilizer and pesticide used to produce that corn has decreased. This double efficiency of increasing yields and decreasing input simultaneously sustains profits and environmental quality.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

2014 Corn Crop Budgetc

 Dryland Corn
(after beans)
Irrigated Corn
Yield/ac.135 bu.180 bu.
Market Price/Bu.$4.60$4.60
 
Estimated Income/Acre  
Grain Sales (yield x price/bushel)$621.00$828.00
Estimated Total Income/Acre$621.00$828.00
 
Estimated Operating Costs/Acre  
Seed$97.50$104.00
Fertilizer and soil amendments109.20138.75
Crop protection chemicals57.0057.00
Crop supplies, testing1.001.00
Crop insurance25.0025.00
Custom application5.505.50
Energy: machinery fuel, drying, irrigation37.1381.64
Machinery repairs and maintenance16.7350.22
Value of operator and hired labor15.0821.44
Operating interest @ 6% x ½ year10.9214.54
Total Operating Costs/Acre$375.06$499.09
 
Estimated Ownership Costs/Acre  
Farm business overhead$4.54$4.81
Machinery overhead25.7047.75
Machinery depreciation30.4851.44
Real estate charge195.00250.00
Total Ownership Costs/Acre$255.72$354.00
 
Estimated Total Costs/Acre$630.78$853.09
 
Income over Operating Costs/Acre$245.94$328.91
Income over Total Costs/Acre-$9.78-$25.09
 
Operating costs/bushel$2.78$2.77
Ownership costs/bushel$1.89$1.97
Total costs/bushel$4.67$4.74

US Grades & Grade Requirements for Cornd

GradeMinimum test weightMaximum limits of:
Damaged kernelsBroken corn and foreign material
Heat damaged kernelsTotal
U.S. No. 156.00.1%3.0%2.0%
U.S. No. 254.00.2%5.0%3.0%
U.S. No. 352.00.5%7.0%4.0%

Major Uses of Corn in Missouri

Missouri is a corn exporter. We produce more corn than we use. Major users of corn in the state are feed mills that manufacture feed for cattle, dairy, swine and poultry and ethanol manufacturers. Ethanol plants have become an important user of corn in Missouri. Missouri has 4 class 1 freight railroads and 2 regional railroads that serve the state (see this map). In addition there are 11 ports on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers that assist in moving grain to export markets (see here). Feed millse (blue dots) and ethanol plantsf (orange dots) in Missouri are shown in the map below.

Map of Missouri Feed Mills and Ethanol Plants

Click to see a larger image

Corn Checkoff Program

Corn producers pay 1 cent per bushel of corn. This money is used to develop and expand the corn market, facilitate communication with corn growers and customers and research new corn utilization opportunitiesg.

Missouri County Yields (2000-2010)a

CountyAverageMaximumMinimum
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Adair1261642004862010
Andrew1291632004992003
Atchison1441852009812002
Audrain1221592004562005
Barry1211492009802005
Barton13115420011032005
Bates1191472009732003
Benton1111592004402003
Bollinger12514820081082002
Boone1221722004682005
Buchanan1361712004892003
Butler14016020081262010
Caldwell1101632004492003
Callaway1241632004732005
Cape Girardeau1391622004972002
Carroll14017220041132010
Cass1181482009722003
Cedar1111392004852005
Chariton13616520041092003
Christian11813320081002010
Clark1321662009832010
Clay1341702004822003
Clinton1261682009642003
Cole1211582009792005
Cooper1281732004682005
Crawford11811820101182010
Dade1221542009672005
Daviess1101572004472003
DeKalb1141462004582003
Dunklin15416820091372002
Franklin12915420081002002
Gasconade1151552009862002
Gentry1171452004662003
Greene1051282004762003
Grundy1191452004622003
Harrison1191432000752003
Henry961262009432003
Hickory1061652009552005
Holt14817420041252002
Howard1361712004952005
Howell981302009652010
Jackson13113020091302009
Jasper1231652004842003
Jefferson1091492000912005
Johnson1121442009712005
Knox1291562004522003
Laclede1141632004612005
Lafayette1411592008782005
Lawrence1201482004802005
Lewis1241692004722005
Lincoln1231492000782002
CountyAverageMaximumMinimum
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Linn1231562004682003
Livingston1241632004632003
Macon1301752004872005
Maries1021312008602005
Marion1361782004642005
McDonald12012020091202009
Mercer12414820061022010
Miller1151562004682005
Mississippi16418420071392002
Moniteau1111512004622005
Monroe1181752004562005
Montgomery1171482004662005
Morgan1011412004492003
New Madrid16017020091452002
Newton1131422007682005
Nodaway1261512004872002
Osage1261642009912005
Pemiscot14516420071282002
Perry1341572004962002
Pettis1091532004472003
Phelps10310320001032000
Pike1261632004702005
Platte1331722004722003
Polk921172001612005
Pulaski76762000762000
Putnam1211492009902008
Ralls1261822004502005
Randolph1201622004642005
Ray13817820041052002
Ripley1211482003672010
Saline14817920041242002
Schuyler1141422004752010
Scotland1281672004812005
Scott15917720071372002
Shelby1251712004652005
St. Charles1441702004962002
St. Clair1031262010582003
St. Francois11614020101002005
St. Louis13817620091072002
Ste. Genevieve13716520041002002
Stoddard15517420081362010
Stone89892010892010
Sullivan1121472004752003
Texas1021232008822000
Vernon1211522004822003
Warren1231552008852005
Wayne1151352004772010
Webster1091352009632003
Worth1211502004932010
Wright15515520091552009

Sources

  1. USDA NASS (used total production in bushels to determine rank)
  2. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Ninth Revised Edition. 1988.
  3. University of Missouri Farm Budgets
  4. USDA GIPSA
  5. Missouri Department of Agriculture
  6. Renewable Fuels Association
  7. Missouri Corn