UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI EXTENSION
 

Missouri Corn Facts

Five-year average annual value of Missouri corn production between 2006 and 2010a: $1,639,689,800

Top Corn Production Regions, 2013a
RankUSRankMO Counties
1Iowa1Atchison
2Illinois2Saline
3Nebraska3Holt
4Minnesota4Nodaway
5Indiana5Stoddard
6South Dakota6Lafayette
7Ohio7New Madrid
8Kansas8Carroll
9Wisconsin9Audrain
10Missouri10Mississippi

One Bushel of Corn Produces:

  • 2.8 gallons of ethanol fuel AND 17 pounds of distillers dried grains (livestock feed)
  • 56 pounds of grain supplying 4.75 pounds of protein and 87,000 kilocalories of energyb
  • 32 pounds of starch, OR 33 pounds of sweetener, OR 1.6 pounds of corn oil
Map of Missouri Corn Production by County (2012)

Click to see a larger image

MissouriHarvested AcresaYieldaAverage Annual Pricea
Record High8,020,000 acres in 1917162 bushels per acre in 2004$7.50/bushel in 2012
Record Low1,400,000 acres in 19839.3 bushels per acre in 1934$1.00/bushel in 1960
5-Year Average2,988,000 acres121.8 bushels per acre$5.41/bushel

Corn Production in Missouri

While corn acres decreased from the early 1900's to the 1980's, yields per acre increased such that total production has been increasing since the 1930's. Annual corn sales have exceeded one billion dollars a year for years 2006 to 2010.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

Genetically Engineered Corn

Missouri has adopted the use of genetically engineered corn. Herbicide-tolerant-only and insect-resistant-only varieties are decreasing as stacked gene varieties that have both herbicide-tolerance and insect-resistance are being adopted.

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Corn Production Efficiency

Missouri corn yields have increased over 1 bushel per year. At the same time the pounds of fertilizer and pesticide used to produce that corn has decreased. This double efficiency of increasing yields and decreasing input simultaneously sustains profits and environmental quality.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

2015 Corn Crop Budgetc

 Dryland Corn
(after beans)
Irrigated Corn
Yield/ac. 135 bu. 185 bu.
Market Price/Bu. $3.70 $3.70
 
Estimated Income/Acre    
Grain Sales (yield x price/bushel) $499.50 $684.50
Estimated Total Income/Acre $499.50$684.50
 
Estimated Operating Costs/Acre    
Seed $101.25 $108.00
Fertilizer and soil amendments 118.80 153.00
Crop protection chemicals 58.00 58.00
Crop supplies, testing 1.00 1.00
Crop insurance 21.00 21.00
Custom application 6.00 6.00
Energy: machinery fuel, drying, irrigation 42.07 91.88
Machinery repairs and maintenance 16.78 50.27
Value of operator and hired labor 15.73 22.61
Operating interest @ 6% x ½ year 11.42 15.35
Total Operating Costs/Acre $392.05 $527.11
 
Estimated Ownership Costs/Acre    
Farm business overhead $4.53 $4.80
Machinery overhead 25.70 47.77
Machinery depreciation 29.50 51.46
Real estate charge 160.00 200.00
Total Ownership Costs/Acre $219.78 $304.03
 
Estimated Total Costs/Acre $611.78 $831.15
 
Income over Operating Costs/Acre$107.45 $157.39
Income over Total Costs/Acre -$112.28 -$146.65
 
Operating costs/bushel $2.90 $2.85
Ownership costs/bushel $1.63 $1.64
Total costs/bushel $4.53 $4.49

US Grades & Grade Requirements for Cornd

GradeMinimum test weightMaximum limits of:
Damaged kernelsBroken corn and foreign material
Heat damaged kernelsTotal
U.S. No. 156.00.1%3.0%2.0%
U.S. No. 254.00.2%5.0%3.0%
U.S. No. 352.00.5%7.0%4.0%

Major Uses of Corn in Missouri

Missouri is a corn exporter. We produce more corn than we use. Major users of corn in the state are feed mills that manufacture feed for cattle, dairy, swine and poultry and ethanol manufacturers. Ethanol plants have become an important user of corn in Missouri. Missouri has 4 class 1 freight railroads and 2 regional railroads that serve the state (see this map). In addition there are 11 ports on the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers that assist in moving grain to export markets (see here). Feed millse (blue dots) and ethanol plantsf (orange dots) in Missouri are shown in the map below.

Map of Missouri Feed Mills and Ethanol Plants

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Corn Checkoff Program

Corn producers pay 1 cent per bushel of corn. This money is used to develop and expand the corn market, facilitate communication with corn growers and customers and research new corn utilization opportunitiesg.

Missouri County Yields (2004-2013)a

CountyAverageMaximumMinimum
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Adair1171642004442012
Andrew1301632004712012
Atchison15418520091062012
Audrain1151592005332012
Barry1051492009372011
Barton1141512009492011
Bates12714720091092005
Benton1071592004432012
Bollinger12915420131052011
Boone1161722004412012
Buchanan14217120041122012
Butler14516020081262010
Caldwell1081632004412012
Callaway1221632004422012
Cape Girardeau1361622004802012
Carroll1371722004842012
Cass1101482009492012
Cedar1091392004772013
Chariton1271652004572012
Christian1031332008602011
Clark1231662009692012
Clay1361702004872012
Clinton1311682009582012
Cole1241582009732012
Cooper1211732004572012
Crawford11811820101182010
Dade1051542009372011
Dallas43432011432011
Daviess1211572004942005
De Kalb1171462004562012
Dunklin16019220131372005
Franklin1251542008492012
Gasconade1131552009642012
Gentry1281452004942010
Greene1181502013672012
Grundy1191452004612012
Harrison1141432004442012
Henry871262009352012
Hickory1211652009552005
Holt15618220131292012
Howard1311712004812012
Howell891302009652010
Jackson1321652004752012
Jasper1051442004342011
Jefferson1111442009452012
Johnson1131562004572012
Knox1191632004412012
Laclede1171592008782005
Lafayette1441832004802012
Lawrence1091482004702012
Lewis1101692004412012
Lincoln1151472004452012
CountyAverageMaximumMinimum
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Linn1191562004512012
Livingston1191632004502012
Macon1251752004452012
Maries1041312008452012
Marion1271782004642005
McDonald12012020081202009
Mercer12414820061022010
Miller1101562004542012
Mississippi16419220131312012
Moniteau1081512004442012
Monroe1101752004222012
Montgomery1061482004312012
Morgan981412004412012
New Madrid16617620131502005
Newton1211422007682005
Nodaway1291512004882012
Osage1261642009782012
Pemiscot15417420131342005
Perry1301612013612012
Pettis1071532004422012
Pike1221632004432012
Platte1381722004842012
Polk821392013442012
Pulaski41412012412012
Putnam1171492009662012
Ralls1211822004412012
Randolph1141622004402012
Ray1391782004882012
Ripley1221512013672010
Saline1461792004842012
Schuyler1121422004752010
Scotland1191672004612012
Scott16017720071392012
Shelby1131712004362012
St. Charles1391702004692012
St. Clair911262010362011
St. Francois1081402010682012
St. Louis1401762009752012
Ste. Genevieve1341652004692012
Stoddard15618520131302012
Stone89892010892010
Sullivan1061472004462012
Texas12213420131102009
Vernon1181522004682012
Warren1201552008502012
Wayne1021352004542012
Webster1191352009812011
Worth1171502004602012
Wright15515520091552009

Sources

  1. USDA NASS (used total production in bushels to determine rank)
  2. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. Ninth Revised Edition. 1988.
  3. University of Missouri Farm Budgets
  4. USDA GIPSA
  5. Missouri Department of Agriculture
  6. Renewable Fuels Association
  7. Missouri Corn