UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI EXTENSION
 

Missouri Cotton Facts

Average value of Missouri cotton production between 2010 and 2014a $229,161,000

Top Cotton Production States, 2015a
RankUS State
1Texas
2Georgia
3Mississippi
4Alabama
5North Carolina
6California
7Arkansas
8Missouri
9Oklahoma
10Arizona

Cotton:

  • Missouri grows upland cotton.
  • One bale of cotton is about 500 pounds
  • Cottonseed is a valuable livestock feed.
Map of Missouri Cotton Production by County (2012)

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MissouriHarvested AcresaYieldaAverage Annual Pricea
Record High555 thousand acres in 19531,097 pounds per acre in 2015$0.856/pound in 2011
Record Low90 thousand acres in 1967281 pounds per acre in 1957$0.224/pound in 1970
5-Year Average272.6 thousand acres1,043 pounds per acre$0.732/pound

Cotton Production in Missouri

Cotton production in Missouri has been variable with the maximum acres occurring in the 1950s, followed by a decrease but recovering many acres through the 1990s. Yields have increased 16 lbs/year. Prices have been stagnant so that the value of production has been increasing due mostly to increases in yields.

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Genetically Engineered Cotton

Missouri has adopted the use of genetically engineered cotton. The proportion of fields planted to Herbicide tolerant only, insect resistant only and stacked (insect and herbicide) varieties changes from year to year depending on expected pest pressure and relative prices of seeds.

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Cotton Production Efficiency

Missouri cotton yields have increased 16 lbs per year. The pesticide and fertilizer usage graphs below are for the U.S. because Missouri data are not available for all years. Fertilizer usage/acre has been constant but use/bale of cotton has declined since yields/acre have increased. Pesticide usage/acre and per bale of cotton have declined due, in large part, to the adoption of GMO cotton varieties.

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2017 Cotton Crop Budgetb

 GMO CottonGMO Cotton
(Irrigated)
Variable CostTotal Cost/AcreTotal Cost/Acre
Seed**$120.00$120.00
Nitrogen27.2027.20
Phosphate13.2016.50
Potash8.7511.25
Limestone14.5014.50
Sulfur--
Boron6.006.00
Pre-Emerge15.0015.00
Post-Emerge30.0030.00
Post-Emerge - Layby--
Insecticide32.0032.00
Boll Weevil Eradication-0.00
Growth Regulator5.0010.00
Defoliation18.0018.00
Ginning (changes with Yield)--
Miscellaneous Overhead12.0012.00
Machinery Fuel22.0022.00
Machinery Repairs32.0032.00
Labor46.0046.00
Irrigation Fuel (Acres Inches)-18.00
Irrigation Repairs-10.00
Irrigation Labor-4.00
Scout8.008.00
Custom Application13.0013.00
Crop Insurance10.0010.00
Interest (½ year at 6.0%)12.9814.26
Total Variable$445.63$489.71
 
Fixed Machinery Cost117.00117.00
Fixed Building & Bins Cost3.006.00
Fixed Irrigation Cost-77.00
Total (Excluding Land)$565.63$686.71
 
Land Real Estate Taxes12.0012.00
Land Interest150.00150.00
 
Total Costs$727.63$848.71
**Seed cost includes Technology Fee
Breakeven Price in Cents/Pound (GMO Cotton)
Yield Lb/AcreVariable CostTotal Cost Excluding LandTotal Cost
480 $0.978$1.207$1.562
540 $0.869$1.073$1.388
600 $0.782$0.966$1.249
660 $0.711$0.878$1.136
720 $0.652$0.805$1.041
780 $0.602$0.743$0.961
840 $0.559$0.690$0.892
900 $0.522$0.644$0.833
960 $0.489$0.604$0.781
1020$0.460$0.568$0.735
1080$0.435$0.537$0.694
1140$0.412$0.508$0.657
1200$0.391$0.483$0.625
1260$0.373$0.460$0.595
Breakeven Price in Cents/Pound (GMO Cotton - Irrigated)
Yield Lb/AcreVariable CostTotal Cost Excluding LandTotal Cost
720 $0.716$0.975$1.212
780 $0.661$0.900$1.118
840 $0.613$0.836$1.039
900 $0.573$0.780$0.969
960 $0.537$0.732$0.909
1020$0.505$0.688$0.855
1080$0.477$0.650$0.808
1140$0.452$0.616$0.765
1200$0.429$0.585$0.727
1260$0.409$0.557$0.692
1320$0.390$0.532$0.661
1380$0.373$0.509$0.632
1440$0.358$0.488$0.606
1500$0.344$0.468$0.582

Cotton Export Datac

The value of total agricultural exports for Missouri in 2015 was $3,604,733,951. The value of cotton exports from Missouri in 2015 was $135,066,957.

Top Cotton Exporting States, 2015
RankMillion $State
11,440.9Texas
2617.5Georgia
3361.0California
4219.7Mississippi
5174.4North Carolina
6165.6Arkansas
7146.2Arizona
8143.2Alabama
9135.1Missouri
10109.4Tennessee

 

Missouri County Yields (2006-2015)a

CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (lbs/ac)Yield (lbs/ac)YearYield(lbs/ac)Year
Dunklin995.3113120158282007
New Madrid1064.8123320109342013
Pemiscot878.996020067402009
Stoddard1069.4130520079342013
* Maximum and minimum years may not be accurate due to USDA county grouping process.

Sources

  1. USDA NASS (used total production in pounds to determine rank)
  2. University of Missouri Extension - Southeast Missouri Crop Budgets
  3. USDA Economic Research Service