UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI EXTENSION
 

Missouri Wheat Facts

Five-year average annual value of Missouri wheat production between 2010 and 2014a $231,731,200

Top Wheat Production States, 2015
RankUS State
1North Dakota
2Kansas
3Montana
4Washington
5Texas
6South Dakota
7Colorado
8Minnesota
9Idaho
15Missouri

One Bushel of Wheat Produces:

  • 42 pounds of flour
  • 73 loaves of bread
Map of Missouri Wheat Production by County (2012)

Click to see a larger image

MissouriHarvested AcresaYieldaAverage Annual Pricea
Record High4,577,000 acres in 191961 bushels per acre in 2003$6.89/bushel in 2012
Record Low260,000 acres in 20108 bushels per acre in 1885$1.18/bushel in 1969
5-Year Average741,000 acres55.2 bushels per acre$5.92/bushel

Wheat Production in Missouri

Wheat acreage is sporadic. During the last 20 years, acreage has been decreasing. Yields per acre, on the other hand, have been steadily increasing about 0.4 bushels per year. Wheat sales are nearly a billion dollars a year.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

Wheat Production Efficiency

Missouri wheat yields have increased over 0.4 bushels per year. This production efficiency has not resulted in fertilizer and pesticide efficiency. Fertilizer use on a per acre and per bushel basis has remained constant; pesticide use has increased.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

2017 Wheat Crop Budgetb

 Wheat
(soft red)
Yield/ac.55 bu
Market Price/Bu.$4.40
 
Estimated Income/Acre 
Crop income (yield x price/bushel)242.00
Estimated Total Income/Acre$242.00
 
Estimated Operating Costs/Acre 
Seed$34.00
Fertilizer and soil amendments56.70
Crop protection17.00
Crop supplies, testing1.00
Crop insurance13.00
Custom application12.00
Machinery fuel8.80
Machinery repairs and maintenance9.68
Value of operator and hired labor11.39
Operating interest @ 6% x ½ year4.50
Total Operating Costs/Acre$168.07
 
Estimated Ownership Costs/Acre 
Farm business overhead$4.25
Machinery overhead15.15
Machinery depreciation18.93
Real estate charge115.50
Total Ownership Costs/Acre$153.82
 
Estimated Total Costs/Acre$321.89
 
Income over Operating Costs/Acre$73.93
Income over Total Costs/Acre-$79.89
 
Operating costs/bushel$3.06
Ownership costs/bushel$2.80
Total costs/bushel$5.85

Wheat Export Datac

The value of total agricultural exports for Missouri in 2015 was $3,604,733,951. The value of wheat exports from Missouri in 2015 was $77,496,577.

Top Wheat Exporting States, 2015
RankMillion $State
1988.4North Dakota
2808.6Kansas
3564.7Montana
4332.9Washington
5306.5South Dakota
6271.3Texas
7258.4Idaho
8238.7Oklahoma
9208.3Minnesota
1777.5Missouri

 

US Grades & Grade Requirements for Wheatd

GradeMinimum test weightMaximum limits of:
Damaged kernelsBroken and foreign material
Heat damaged kernelsTotal
U.S. No. 160.00.2%2.0%3.4%
U.S. No. 258.00.2%4.0%5.7%
U.S. No. 356.00.5%7.0%9.3%

Wheat Milling in Missourie

Map of Missouri Wheat Mills

Click to see a larger image

CompanyLocationWheat milled
ADM Milling CompanySt. LouisSoft wheat
ADM Milling CompanyCarthageSoft wheat
ADM Milling CompanyKansas CityHard wheat, durum
American Italian Pasta CompanyExcelsior SpringsDurum
Bartlett Milling CompanyKansas CityWheat
General MillsKansas CityHard wheat, soft wheat
Italgrani USASt. LouisDurum
Siemer Milling CompanyGainesvilleHard wheat, soft wheat

Missouri County Yields (2005-2016)a

CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Adair49642006402007
Andrew50672012362008
Audrain57672014492009
Barry47672015272007
Barton47642014282007
Bates47552012382007
Benton51622013432009
Bollinger44502006282007
Boone48692014272010
Buchanan45592014262008
Butler45512005322015
Caldwell49682013352015
Callaway48572015422011
Cape Girardeau48592013342007
Carroll46522006412009
Cass45532012382010
Cedar41562012302006
Chariton46622006352012
Clark54652012452010
Clay45582008262007
Cole42502014342015
Cooper54642014362010
Dade43612015312007
Daviess42662006302008
De Kalb49662006312008
Dunklin52712013412007
Franklin44532014372010
Gasconade44662015352007
Gentry52672006372008
Greene44512013332007
Grundy47672006352008
Harrison42532006292008
Henry47672014382010
Hickory36622012192006
Holt47582012372011
Howard43482006352010
Jackson52602012392015
Jasper46592012262007
Jefferson43512013372010
Johnson47622014362010
CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Knox51642006362010
Lafayette53642012432010
Lawrence45572012342007
Lewis53712006402009
Lincoln51572014402010
Linn47642006402009
Livingston49642006422010
Macon49682006362011
Maries38582008282007
Marion55692006362010
Miller39512013272008
Mississippi63772012462007
Moniteau48572014312010
Monroe50652006352010
Montgomery55732012472010
Morgan55712012342010
New Madrid56662006472007
Newton48692012282007
Nodaway46592014342008
Osage42472013392008
Pemiscot58762013452007
Perry48602012422011
Pettis48612014332010
Pike52632006312010
Platte42562006272007
Polk44582012352006
Ralls54672012372010
Randolph53672014392011
Ray44552006362015
Saline48582012382011
Scotland56742006442011
Scott53582015352007
St Charles52632015402010
St Clair40552014302010
St Louis51592014482015
Ste Genevieve51672014412007
Stoddard58752013432007
Sullivan44512007362014
Vernon35442005272010
Warren49682014412010
Webster39602006192007
* Maximum and minimum years may not be accurate due to USDA county grouping process.

Missouri Wheat Types

Missouri grows two types of wheat. The Western 1/3 of the state of Missouri is known for growing Hard Red Winter Wheat. The Eastern 2/3 of the state of Missouri is known for growing Soft Red Winter Wheat.

Hard Red Winter

Hard, brownish, mellow high protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts. Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone. Other states that grow hard red winter wheat are Arizona, Washington, California, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

It is traded by the CME Group. Contract months include July, September, December, March, and May and the contract size is 5,000 bushels. Prices are in cents and ¼ cents per bushel with daily maximum price fluctuation of $0.60 per bushel above or below the previous day's closing settlements.f

Soft Red Winter

Soft, low protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added for example, are made from soft red winter wheat. Soft Red Winter Wheat states include Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Wisconsin.

It is traded by the CME Group. Contract months include July, September, December, March, and May and the contract size is 5,000 bushels. Prices are in cents and ¼ cents per bushel with daily maximum price fluctuation of $0.60 per bushel above or below the previous day's closing settlements.g

Other types of wheat not commonly grown in Missouri include

Durum

Very hard, translucent, light colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta. Durum wheat is primarily grown in North Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, and South Dakota, as well as Arizona and California. While not commonly grown in Missouri, it is milled in Missouri.

Hard Red Spring

Hard, brownish, high protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat. It is primarily traded at the Minneapolis Grain Exchange. It is grown in areas where the growing season is shorter, such as Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

Hard White

Hard, light colored, opaque, chalky, medium protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas. Used for bread and brewing. Hard White Wheat has been grown in Kansas, California, and Montana. In recent years, much more research has been invested in hard white wheat so look for an increase in the production of this class of wheat.

Soft White

Soft, light colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat. Soft White Wheat is mainly grown in the Pacific Northwest, in states like Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah, although soft white wheat has also been grown in New York and Michigan.

Sources

  1. USDA NASS (used total production in bushels to determine rank)
  2. University of Missouri Crop Budgets
  3. USDA Economic Research Service
  4. USDA GIPSA
  5. North American Millers' Association
  6. CME Group - KC Hard Red Winter Wheat Contract Specifications
  7. CME Group - Wheat (Soft Red Winter) Contract Specifications