UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI EXTENSION
 

Missouri Wheat Facts

Five-year average annual value of Missouri wheat production between 2012 and 2016a $232,468,600

Top Wheat Production Regionsa
20162016
RankUS StateRankMO Counties
1Kansas1Barton
2North Dakota2Mississippi
3Montana3Jasper
4Washington4Vernon
5Oklahoma5Pemiscot
6South Dakota6Stoddard
7Colorado7Dade
8Idaho8Audrain
9Texas9Pettis
15Missouri10New Madrid

One Bushel of Wheat Produces:

  • 42 pounds of flour
  • 73 loaves of bread
Map of Missouri Wheat Production by County (2012)

Click to see a larger image

MissouriHarvested AcresaYieldaAverage Annual Pricea
Record High4,577,000 acres in 191961 bushels per acre in 2003$6.89/bushel in 2012
Record Low260,000 acres in 20108 bushels per acre in 1885$1.18/bushel in 1969
5-Year Average717,000 acres59.2 bushels per acre$5.38/bushel

Wheat Production in Missouri

Wheat acreage is sporadic. During the last 20 years, acreage has been decreasing. Yields per acre, on the other hand, have been steadily increasing about 0.4 bushels per year. Wheat sales are nearly a billion dollars a year.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

Wheat Production Efficiency

Missouri wheat yields have increased over 0.4 bushels per year. This production efficiency has not resulted in fertilizer and pesticide efficiency. Fertilizer use on a per acre and per bushel basis has remained constant; pesticide use has increased.

Click graph to see a larger image

 

 

2018 Wheat Crop Budgetb

 Wheat
(winter)
Yield/ac.55 bu
Market Price/Bu.$4.10
 
Estimated Income/Acre 
Crop income (yield x price/bushel)225.50
Estimated Total Income/Acre$225.50
 
Estimated Operating Costs/Acre 
Seed$32.00
Fertilizer and soil amendments52.97
Crop protection16.00
Crop supplies, testing1.00
Crop insurance12.00
Custom application12.00
Machinery fuel8.95
Machinery repairs and maintenance9.70
Value of operator and hired labor11.39
Operating interest @ 6% x ½ year4.29
Total Operating Costs/Acre$160.29
 
Estimated Ownership Costs/Acre 
Farm business overhead$4.25
Machinery overhead15.15
Machinery depreciation18.93
Real estate charge115.50
Total Ownership Costs/Acre$153.82
 
Estimated Total Costs/Acre$314.12
 
Income over Operating Costs/Acre$65.21
Income over Total Costs/Acre-$88.62
 
Operating costs/bushel$2.91
Ownership costs/bushel$2.80
Total costs/bushel$5.71

Wheat Export Datac

The value of total agricultural exports for Missouri in 2016 was $3,629,700,000. The value of wheat exports from Missouri in 2016 was $86,500,000.

Top Wheat Exporting States, 2016
RankMillion $State
1968.4North Dakota
2844.6Kansas
3529.2Montana
4357.3Washington
5272.4South Dakota
6254.7Oklahoma
7238.7Idaho
8222.1Minnesota
9181.3Colorado
1686.5Missouri

 

US Grades & Grade Requirements for Wheatd

GradeMinimum test weightMaximum limits of:
Damaged kernelsBroken and foreign material
Heat damaged kernelsTotal
U.S. No. 160.00.2%2.0%3.4%
U.S. No. 258.00.2%4.0%5.7%
U.S. No. 356.00.5%7.0%9.3%

Wheat Milling in Missourie

Map of Missouri Wheat Mills

Click to see a larger image

CompanyLocationWheat milled
ADM Milling CompanySt. LouisSoft wheat
ADM Milling CompanyCarthageSoft wheat
ADM Milling CompanyKansas CityHard wheat, durum
American Italian Pasta CompanyExcelsior SpringsDurum
Bartlett Milling CompanyKansas CityWheat
General MillsKansas CityHard wheat, soft wheat
Italgrani USASt. LouisDurum
Siemer Milling CompanyGainesvilleHard wheat, soft wheat

Missouri County Yields (2007-2016)a

CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Adair51792016402009
Andrew51692016362008
Audrain59782016492009
Barry46672015272007
Barton53782016282007
Bates47552012382007
Benton50622013432009
Bollinger47692016282007
Boone50692014272010
Buchanan45592014262008
Butler45512012322015
Caldwell47682013352015
Callaway49602016422011
Cape Girardeau49652016342007
Carroll46522016412008
Cass45582016382008
Cedar44572016352007
Chariton46622016352012
Clark53652012452010
Clay44582008262015
Cole42532016342010
Cooper56682016362010
Dade48782016312007
Dallas54572013502016
Daviess41612016302008
De Kalb45582014312008
Dunklin52712013412007
Franklin43532014372010
Gasconade46662015352007
Gentry49562011372008
Greene44512013332007
Grundy44532012352008
Harrison39442010292008
Henry47672014382010
Hickory39622012302008
Holt46582012372011
Howard41442007352010
Howell45452011452009
Jackson53702016392015
Jasper51782016262007
Jefferson44512013372010
Johnson50682016362010
Knox52732016362010
Laclede45552013402008
Lafayette55642012432010
CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Adair51792016402009
Andrew51692016362008
Audrain59782016492009
Barry46672015272007
Barton53782016282007
Bates47552012382007
Benton50622013432009
Bollinger47692016282007
Boone50692014272010
Buchanan45592014262008
Butler45512012322015
Caldwell47682013352015
Callaway49602016422011
Cape Girardeau49652016342007
Carroll46522016412008
Cass45582016382008
Cedar44572016352007
Chariton46622016352012
Clark53652012452010
Clay44582008262015
Cole42532016342010
Cooper56682016362010
Dade48782016312007
Dallas54572013502016
Daviess41612016302008
De Kalb45582014312008
Dunklin52712013412007
Franklin43532014372010
Gasconade46662015352007
Gentry49562011372008
Greene44512013332007
Grundy44532012352008
Harrison39442010292008
Henry47672014382010
Hickory39622012302008
Holt46582012372011
Howard41442007352010
Howell45452011452009
Jackson53702016392015
Jasper51782016262007
Jefferson44512013372010
Johnson50682016362010
Knox52732016362010
Laclede45552013402008
Lafayette55642012432010
CountyAverageMaximum*Minimum*
Yield (bu/ac)Yield (bu/ac)YearYield(bu/ac)Year
Lawrence47572012342007
Lewis52642012402009
Lincoln52712016402010
Linn45522014402009
Livingston48562014422010
Macon46552007362011
Maries38582008282007
Marion55682012362010
Miller43712016272008
Mississippi63802016462007
Moniteau50672016312010
Monroe50672016352010
Montgomery55732012472010
Morgan56712012342010
New Madrid57712016472007
Newton51692012282007
Nodaway48682016342008
Osage42472013392007
Pemiscot59762013452007
Perry50642016422011
Pettis50702016332010
Pike51622014312010
Platte40542012272007
Polk47582016402009
Ralls54672012372010
Randolph51672014392011
Ray43542014362015
Ripley41472012382007
Saline47582012382011
Schuyler38432008322009
Scotland55702012442011
Scott52582012352007
Shelby49612007342010
St Charles54712016402010
St Clair41552014302010
St Francois54592013502008
St Louis56872016482012
Ste Genevieve52672014412007
Stoddard59782016432007
Sullivan43512007362014
Vernon43782016272010
Warren52692016412010
Wayne33352013302008
Webster36492012192007
* Maximum and minimum years may not be accurate due to USDA county grouping process.

Missouri Wheat Types

Missouri grows two types of wheat. The Western 1/3 of the state of Missouri is known for growing Hard Red Winter Wheat. The Eastern 2/3 of the state of Missouri is known for growing Soft Red Winter Wheat.

Hard Red Winter

Hard, brownish, mellow high protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts. Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone. Other states that grow hard red winter wheat are Arizona, Washington, California, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

It is traded by the CME Group. Contract months include July, September, December, March, and May and the contract size is 5,000 bushels. Prices are in cents and ¼ cents per bushel with daily maximum price fluctuation of $0.60 per bushel above or below the previous day's closing settlements.f

Soft Red Winter

Soft, low protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added for example, are made from soft red winter wheat. Soft Red Winter Wheat states include Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Wisconsin.

It is traded by the CME Group. Contract months include July, September, December, March, and May and the contract size is 5,000 bushels. Prices are in cents and ¼ cents per bushel with daily maximum price fluctuation of $0.60 per bushel above or below the previous day's closing settlements.g

Other types of wheat not commonly grown in Missouri include

Durum

Very hard, translucent, light colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta. Durum wheat is primarily grown in North Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, and South Dakota, as well as Arizona and California. While not commonly grown in Missouri, it is milled in Missouri.

Hard Red Spring

Hard, brownish, high protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat. It is primarily traded at the Minneapolis Grain Exchange. It is grown in areas where the growing season is shorter, such as Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

Hard White

Hard, light colored, opaque, chalky, medium protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas. Used for bread and brewing. Hard White Wheat has been grown in Kansas, California, and Montana. In recent years, much more research has been invested in hard white wheat so look for an increase in the production of this class of wheat.

Soft White

Soft, light colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat. Soft White Wheat is mainly grown in the Pacific Northwest, in states like Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah, although soft white wheat has also been grown in New York and Michigan.

Sources

  1. USDA NASS (used total production in bushels to determine rank)
  2. University of Missouri Crop Budgets
  3. USDA Economic Research Service
  4. USDA GIPSA
  5. North American Millers' Association
  6. CME Group - KC Hard Red Winter Wheat Contract Specifications
  7. CME Group - Wheat (Soft Red Winter) Contract Specifications